(composed of an NP the mat, and headed by the preposition on ). Retrieved 11 February 2015. While few scholars agree with Chomsky and Halle (1968) that conventional English orthography is "near-optimal there is a rationale for current English spelling patterns. Early Modern English was characterised by the Great Vowel Shift (13501700 inflectional simplification, and linguistic standardisation. In addition, the words that have each vowel vary by dialect. English used to have parity with French and German in scientific research, but now it dominates that field. At the time of the Survey of English Dialects, grammar and vocabulary differed across the country, but a process of lexical attrition has led most of this variation to disappear. In Kachru's three-circles model, the "outer circle" countries are countries such as the Philippines, Jamaica, India, Pakistan, Singapore, and Nigeria with a much smaller proportion of native speakers of English but much use of English as a second language for education, government, or domestic business. GA has dark l in most cases.